A Screening for Selected Human Pharmaceuticals in Water Using SPE-HPLC, Ogun State, Nigeria
Pharmaceuticals are a structurally diverse class of emerging contaminants that have been detected throughout the world as trace contaminants in the water environment. The study is aimed at determining the occurrence and quantification of diclofenac, paracetamol, ibuprofen, ciprofloxacin, sulphadoxine and amodiaquine in well-water, tap-water and river-water. The study is conducted around a hospital environment, in Ogun State, Nigeria, using SPE and HPLC analysis. Water samples were collected from tap-water, well-water and river-water around Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State. Samples were extracted using solid phase extraction technique and further analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The tap-water water samples contained paracetamol, ibuprofen, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and sulphadoxine in concentrations of 0.306ng/ml, 3.738ng/ml, 0.138ng/ml, 0.44ng/ml and 1.012ng/ml respectively. The well-water samples contained paracetamol, ibuprofen, sulphadoxine and amodiaquine in concentrations of 0.152ng/ml, 5.078ng/ml, 1.008ng/ml and 0.01892ng/ml while the river-water samples were found to contain paracetamol, ibuprofen and sulphadoxine in concentration 0.192ng/ml, 3.042ng/ml and 1.294ng/ml respectively. The results confirm pharmaceuticals contamination indeed occurred in the water samples collected, which further supports previous studies around the world. Of significant importance, is the detection of sulphadoxine and amodiaquine waste, which to the best of our knowledge have not been detected elsewhere in the world. Effective water treatment plants that can conveniently remove pharmaceuticals in water is warranted, thus, preserving life and ecosystem at large.