Antiplasmodial and Biochemical Effects of Combination of Ethanolic Leave-extracts of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum gratissimum on Plasmodium berghei-infected Mice

  • Uduma E Osonwa Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
  • Ogochukwu D Mbonu Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
  • Stanley C Eluu Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
  • Angus N Oli Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
Keywords: Pharmaceutical Research


Malaria is an infectious disease that continues to be linked with considerable morbidity and mortality. The present study was to compare antimalarial activities of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum gratissimum as well as to evaluate the combined effect of the combination on Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.  Curative effects against established infection were studied in chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei NK65-infected mice using the method described by Ryley and Petes in 1970.  Hematological studies were carried out using the methods described by Cheesbrough, while biochemical parameters were determined by the method of Reitman and Frankel.  Infected mice orally treated with ethanolic extract of A. indica leaves and O. gratissimum as well as the combination produced significant (P<0.05), dose-dependent activity against the parasite throughout the treatment period.  Higher reduction was observed at days 4 and 7, and maximum reduction (95.07%) was attained with 24 mg/kg of the combination of each of the extracts on the seventh day. This demonstrates that the combination of O. gratissimum and A. indica had better antimalarial activity than when used individually.  The extracts also improved PCV and Hb, in addition to offering a protective effect to the liver. The findings from this work provide justifiable evidence and need to combine plant extracts in malaria treatment in order to improve their efficacy and slow the development of resistance as well.

Author Biographies

Uduma E Osonwa, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Reader
Ogochukwu D Mbonu, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, MSc student
Stanley C Eluu, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, PhD student

Angus N Oli, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, Lecturer


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